BI 178 - Basic Human Physiology
Credit Hours: 3
This course covers all the major systems of the body with a special emphasis on nutrition issues and nutritionally-related diseases.
Upon completion of the course, the student will be able to:
GENERAL PLAN OF THE HUMAN BODY
- define anatomy and physiology and explain their interrelationship;
- compare the levels of organization of the human body;
- identify the various tissue types in terms of structure, function and location; and
- describe homeostasis and explain its significance.
CHEMICAL LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION
- state the main elements composing the human body;
- define metabolism; describe anabolic and catabolic reactions;
- describe the function of the major inorganic molecules and the significance of pH in the body;
- define and apply the terms "hydrolysis" and "dehydration synthesis";
- identify the four major classes of organic molecules; describe the molecular structure and the function of each; and
- relate each of the classes of organic molecules to their food sources.
CELLULAR AND TISSUE LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
- define the cell as the basic unit of life;
- define the structure of the cell membrane; list its functions;
- describe the process by which substances pass through the cell membrane;
- compare and contrast isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic solutions; and
- identify and describe important organelles.
THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
- describe lymph and lymphatic vessels;
- describe the method and direction of lymph flow;
- describe the structure of a lymph node; explain its physiology;
- state the body's general defenses against disease;
- explain the immune response; differentiate between the types of immunity; and
- explain blood typing, transplant rejection and allergies.
- describe the characteristics of blood;
- state the functions of blood;
- identify and give the function of each of the components of plasma.Describe red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets;
- describe the steps and the various problems involved in blood clotting;
- describe the external and internal anatomy of the heart;
- trace the flow of blood through the heart and through the body circuits;
- describe the conduction system and the outcome of irregularities in this system;
- identify and locate the heart valves; describe irregularities in blood flow due to faulty valves;
- describe the types of blood vessels, including function and blood pressure;
- state factors affecting blood pressure and cardiac output;
- explain several vessel disorders, such as aneurysm and hypertension; and
- discuss the effects of diet on the cardiovascular system.
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM AND METABOLISM
- describe the organs of the gastrointestinal tract; describe the accessory organs;
- describe the wall of the gastrointestinal tract; describe variations in the wall in each specific organ;
- differentiate between mechanical and chemical digestion;
- describe the action of an enzyme; describe each enzyme involved in digestion;
- describe bile and describe its role in digestion;
- identify the end products of digestion and explain how each is absorbed;
- define nutrient; list the types of nutrients and explain the function of each;
- explain the processes of glucose catabolism and glucose anabolism;
- explain the metabolic pathways involved in lipid catabolism; in lipid anabolism;
- explain the metabolic pathways involved in the utilization of amino acids for energy;
- differentiate between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins; describe the function of each; and
- explain the significance of several minerals in maintaining homeostasis.
THE URINARY SYSTEM AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE
- identify and locate the organs composing the urinary system;
- describe the anatomy of a nephron;
- explain the processes of filtration, tubular reabsorption and secretion;
- state normal constituents of urine;
- state abnormal components of urine, and explain the clinical significance of each; and
- describe the role of the kidney in water, pH, and electrolyte balance.
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
- identify and locate each of the organs composing the endocrine system;
- differentiate between endocrine and exocrine glands;
- state the hormones produced by each gland; explain the physiological significance of each; and
- describe hormone regulation.
Reserved for Dietetic Technology students only.