ML 218 - Clinical Microbiology I Lecture
Credit Hours: 2
An introductory microbiology course, emphasizing the clinical laboratory, technical skills and theory behind basic clinical microbiology procedures. Topics include classification and diversity of microbes, cell structure and function, growth, metabolism and genetics, laboratory methods for cultivation and identification of microbes from patient specimens. The principles of infectious disease production, microbial pathogenicity and host defense mechanisms are also presented.
At the completion of this course, the student should be able to:
- Fundamentals of Microbiology:
- state the general features of various forms of microbial life;
- explain the beneficial and harmful role of microbes in human life;
- describe the historical developments in the field of microbiology;
- compare the theories of spontaneous generation and biogenesis; and
- list Koch's Postulates and explain their significance.
- Classification and Diversity of Microorganisms:
- list the taxonomic categories used for the classification of living organisms;
- explain the binomial system of classification and correctly identify the genus and species names of organisms;
- outline the Five Kingdom and Three Domain Classification System;
- describe the characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;
- outline characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organism; and
- describe the structural features of viruses.
- Microscopic Examination of Microbes:
- define the metric units used to measure microorganisms;
- state the use of various types of microscopy; and
- explain the components of simple, differential, and special stains.
- Microbial Cell Structure and Function:
- compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells;
- distinguish between the various types of bacterial cell morphology;
- compare the chemical composition of the Gram positive and Gram negative cell walls;
- describe the structure and function of glycocalyx, flagella, axial filaments, fimbriae, and pilie;
- describe the chemical composition and functions of the prokaryotic cell membrane;
- explain the composition and function of cytoplasm, nucleoid, plasmids, ribosomes, and inclusions of prokaryotic cells;
- list the organelles of the eukaryotic cells and describe their function; and
- explain the process of endospore formation and its clinical significance.
- Microbial Growth:
- explain the growth requirements of microbes;
- compare and contrast the various nutritional types of organisms;
- classify microorganisms according to their optimum growth temperature, pH, and oxygen preference;
- explain the effects of osmotic pressure on microbial growth;
- describe the various types of culture media used in the cultivation of microbes;
- explain binary fission and the logathrithmic bacterial growth curve; and
- compare methods of measuring bacterial growth.
- Microbial Metabolism:
- define the terms metabolism, catabolism, and anabolism; and
- describe energy production processes including oxidation, reduction, glycolysis, respiration, fermentation, and photosynthesis.
- Microbial Genetics:
- describe the structure of DNA and RNA;
- define the terms gene, chromosome, genotype, and phenotype;
- explain the flow of genetic information and protein synthesis;
- define and classify mutations;
- explain genetic transfer and mechanisms of recombination; and
- describe the role of transposons in genetic alteration.
- Laboratory Methods of Microorganism Classification and Identification:
- explain how biochemical tests are used to separate closely related bacteria into species;
- describe how serological procedures indicate the exposure of an individual to a particular microbe and are used to identify microbes;
- compare and contrast the following procedures: DNA fingerprinting, PCR, and DNA probes; and
- compare phenotypic vs phylogenetic classification in Bergey's Manual.
- differentiate a virus from other organisms;
- describe the major components of the virion;
- differentiate between lysis and lysogeny and the role of the bacteriophage in each; and
- discuss selected DNA and RNA viruses and their associated disease.
- Principles of Disease:
- define pathogen, infection, disease, and pathogenesis;
- compare normal, transient, opportunistic, and pathogenic microorganisms;
- distinguish between communicable and non-communicable diseases; and
- explain disease transmission, nosocomial infections, patterns of disease, and compromised host.
- Microbial Pathogenicity:
- define host, parasite, intoxication, virulence, and colonization;
- list both the portals of entry and exit of a pathogen;
- explain microbial adherence;
- describe pathogenic properties of bacteria including external structures, enzymes, and toxins;
- compare and contrast endotoxin and exotoxin; and
- discuss the pathogenic properties of viruses, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and algae.
- Non-Specific Host Defenses:
- define the terms resistance and susceptibility;
- discuss the role of skin, mucous membranes, and other external defenses in disease prevention;
- describe inflammation and its role in defense against disease;
- list the type and functions of leukocytes;
- define phagocytosis and describe its importance in fighting infection; and
- list factors which lower host resistance.
- Specific Immune Response:
- distinguish between innate and acquired immunity;
- compare the various types of acquired immunity;
- differentiate between humoral and cell mediated immunity;
- define an antigen and antibody;
- list the five human antibody types;
- distinguish between primary and secondary immune response;
- explain the mechanism of antibody formation;
- define cell mediated immunity; and
- describe the characteristics of T-cell populations.
Prerequisites: BI 147, BI 148
Corequisites: ML 219