Feb 28, 2024  
Spring 2020 Catalog 
Spring 2020 Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

BI 230 - Microbiology

Credit Hours: 3

This course deals with the microorganisms such as yeast, molds, viruses, protozoa and bacteria with emphasis on the study of bacteria. The anatomy, physiology, ecology, economic importance and pathogenicity of these microorganisms will be included. Classifications of these microbes and the diseases produced by these organisms will be studied. Immunity, antigen-antibody reactions, sterilization methods and methods for cultivation of microorganisms will be covered.

Fulfills SUNY General Education – Natural Sciences.

Course Outcomes
Upon completion of the course, the student will be able to:


  • define Microbiology, Microorganisms, Medical Microbiology Disease and Infectious Disease;
  • list and characterize the different groups of microorganisms in relation to cell structure organization, size and disease association; and
  • list the metric units of measurement used for microorganisms, and knowthe difference.


  • recognize various early theories of disease causation;
  • recognize the names and contributions of key people in the developmentof medical microbiology;
  • list and describe Koch’s Postulates, identify the importance and explain their limitations; and
  • identify contributions of Koch and coworkers to the field of clinical diagnostic microbiology.


  • define taxonomy.
  • identify the taxonomy groups for living things and classify groups of microbes within the hierarchy of living things. Recognize and identify contributions of early taxonomists such as Linnaeus and Whittaker;
  • recognize and be able to correctly write the scientific name of living organisms;
  • compare and contrast the overall cell structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes;
  • recognize and relate to the cellular components of eukaryotic cells to the chemical composition, location, function, and the function of each structure;
  • recognize and relate the cellular components of prokaryotic cells to the chemical composition, location, function and clinical significance of each structure; and
  • identify and use the correct bacteriologic terminology to describe the basic shapes and arrangements of bacteria.


  • describe how to prepare a smear of microbes for staining purposes and examining with a microscope;
  • compare simple, differential and special stains;
  • list the steps in performing a Gram stain. Describe the function of each reagent and describe the appearance of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria after each step. Be able to “troubleshoot” to explain procedural errors; and
  • explain why each of the following stains is used and briefly explain the rationale of each stain: acid-fast, negative, spore, and flagella.


  • list and explain the growth requirements for microorganisms;
  • list and explain the conditions for growth needed by microorganisms such as temperature, osmotic pressure, and gaseous. Use the appropriate terminology to describe organisms preferring those conditions;
  • compare and contrast metabolic energy-yielding pathways such as aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation in relation to the definition of each pathway, the major sets of chemical reactions involved, the end-products and the relative amount of energy produced;
  • define culture media and describe various types of media such as chemically defined and complex. List the raw materials that are used to prepare complex media. Describe the uses for media such as all-purpose, enriched, selective, differential, biochemical test, and reducing media and give examples of each type of medium;
  • define terms such as binary fission, exponential growth, generation time, and population growth curve;
  • explain the phases of a bacterial population growth curve. Recognize each phase and explain the dynamics occurring in each phase; and
  • explain how to determine the number of viable bacteria in a sample. Calculate the number of bacteria in an original specimen from a standard plate count.


  • define terms relevant to hereditary material;
  • describe various mechanisms whereby microorganisms acquire new genetic information; compare and contrast each mechanism; and
  • give examples of the clinical relevance and applications of each mechanism.


  • define terms associated with methods of controlling microbial growth;
  • identify various physical methods of controlling microbes and explain how each exerts its effect on microbes; relate each method to an application;
  • list the factors affecting the effectiveness of chemicals. Give examples of specific chemicals, their use and action against microbes; and
  • apply the information on physical and chemical control to appropriate situations.


  • name key people and their contributions to the development of antimicrobial drugs;
  • define terms related to antimicrobial drugs; match specific antibiotics to the group of microbes that produce them; define the action and spectrum of antimicrobial drugs. Describe specific modes of action of antimicrobial drugs; relate each to the degree of selective toxicity and give examples of drugs thatexert that mode of action; and
  • describe potential complications of using antimicrobial drugs.


  • define terms related to infectious diseases;
  • describe various ways whereby diseases can be spread;
  • list events in the development of a disease; and
  • classify infectious diseases according to duration, severity and incidence.


  • define terms related to pathogenicity;
  • describe the portals of entry and exit of microbes; and
  • list and describe the pathogenic properties of microbes and give examples of diseases that are associated with these.


  • define terms related to host defense;
  • describe various types of host defense mechanisms including external and internal non-specific mechanisms; give examples of how each protects against disease;
  • recognize names of contributors and their work in the development of immunology. Compare and contrast humoral and cellular immunity in relation to organs, cells, their products, function and mechanism of action. Distinguish between different types of immunity;
  • give examples of different immunodeficiencies and explain the consequence of such defects; propose treatments; and
  • describe immediate and delayed hypersensitivity in relation to allergens, mediators, mechanism, treatment and prevention.


  • for each major group of pathogenic microbes, describe their characteristics, major disease associations, pathogenesis, host response, treatment, prevention and laboratory diagnosis; and
  • differentiate between the various pathogenic microbes in relation to cell type, organization and pathogenesis.

Prerequisites: Any college-level biology course including lab. BI 150-151 are recommended.
Concurrent Registration: BI 231
F/S (C, N, S)