Sep 26, 2020
BI 221 - Laboratory for BI 220
Credit Hours: 1.5
Students use fruit fly, bacterial and fungal cultures to gain an understanding of genetic principles. Human cell cultures are extensively used for chromosome studies.
At the completion of the course, the student will be able to:
- drosophila and maize experiments in genetics: monohybrid crosses: Describe experiments using Drosophila melanogaster and maize that led to Mendel's law of segregation;
- drosophila and maize experiments in genetics: dihybrid crosses: Understand the experimental and theoretical basis for independent assortment;
- principles of probability: Relate the laws of probability to the study of genetics especially with respect to pedigrees and consanguineous marriages;
- chi-square test: Understand the meaning and application of the chi-square test;
- meiosis in angiosperms: microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis: Understand the basic features of meiosis in maize microsporogenesis and (lily or other) megasporogenesis. Describe alternation of generations as it applies to angiosperms;
- human chromosomes: Describe normal and aberrant structure of chromosomes with respect to size, location of centromeres and possible presence of satellites. Prepare a karyotype of human leukocyte chromosomes;
- linkage and crossing over: Go over various techniques such as three point linage data and in situ hybridization for gene mapping and DNA sequencing. Note how these techniques are used to reveal chromosome rearrangements;
- open-ended experiments using drosophila: locating a mutant gene in its chromosome: Analyze F1 and F2 data resulting from Drosophila experiments in which the genetic traits are given to the students as unknowns and write a scientific paper following a suggested format to summarize a Drosophila experiment;
- genetic material: isolation of DNA: Extract DNA from beef spleen or liver; describe the appearance of, and quantify (in milligrams gram of tissue) the DNA so extracted;
- amplification of DNA polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction and DNA fingerprinting: Discuss the principles upon which PCR chain is based, and outline a procedure for conducting the polymerase chain reaction. Apply this to the analysis of a human fingerprint based on the PIS80 LOCUS;
- transformayion of escherichia coli: Describe plasmids and bacteriophages, and how they relate to the generation of recombinant DNA and transformation. Outline a procedure for determining the relativeefficiency of linear vs. circular DNA in producing transformation;
- bacterial mutagenesis: Describe the differences between spontaneous and induced mutations including the induction of mutation by ultraviolet light and the significance of DNA repair mechanisms.
- population genetics: the Hardy Weinber Principle: Calculate the gene (allele) frequencies for a population sample in which each of the genotypes AA, Aa and aa have a unique phenotype, and calculate the frequencies of the allele A and aa individuals in a population sample; and
- applied human genetics: List at least ten human single-gene traits and indicate the mechanism of inheritance. Prepare and analyze a human pedigree to illustrate the pattern of inheritance of a single-gene trait and discuss the electrophoresis of hemoglobin variants and the significance of this procedure for understanding single-gene traits.
Concurrent Registration: BI 220